Polar Research Board Members

Julie Brigham-Grette (Chair) is a Professor in the Department of Geosciences, University of Massachusetts Amherst, where she has been since 1987 and served as Associate Department Head from 1998–2004; she was elected department head in 2013. Her research expertise is in Arctic marine and terrestrial paleoclimate records of late Cenozoic to recent eras, the evolution of the Arctic climate especially in the Bering Strait region, and Lake El'gygytgyn drilling in northeastern Russia. She has a Ph.D. in Geology from the University of Colorado, Boulder. She served as a Member of the Arctic Logistics Task Force for NSF's Office of Polar Programs from 1996–1999 and 2000–2003, and as a member of NSF-OPP Office Advisory Council, 2002–2004. She chaired the U.S. scientific delegation to Svalbard for shared Norwegian/U.S. scientific collaborations and logistical platforms, 1999–2000; served two terms as chair of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme's Science Steering Committee on Past Global Change (PAGES), 2004–2008; as president of the American Quaternary Association, 2004–2006; as U.S. representative to the International Continental Drilling Program, 2003–2008; as U.S. co-chief scientist of the Lake El'gygytgyn Drilling Project, 2000 to present; as co-chair, Science Steering Committee of Drilling, Observation and Sampling of the Earth's Continental Crust, 2010 to present; and as Chair of the AGU Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology Focus Group, 2010 to 2012. She is a Fellow of the Geological Society of America. She was a member of the NRC Committee on Role and Future Use of the U.S. Icebreaker Fleet; and has been a member of the NRC Polar Research Board since 2008.

Sridhar Anandakrishnan is an Associate Professor in the Department of Geosciences and the Environment Institute at Pennsylvania State University. His research interests include seismic imaging used to study interactions between the cryosphere and lithosphere, and climate change. Dr. Anandakrishnan's research with CReSIS, the Center for the Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets, is trying to better understand and predict the role of polar ice sheets in sea level change, using new technologies and computer models. Dr. Anandakrishnan received his Ph.D. from University of Wisconsin, Madison in 1990.

Katey Walter Anthony is an Aquatic Ecosystem Ecologist and an Assistant Research Professor at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks. Her research focuses on methane in the Arctic, lakes, biogeochemistry, climate change, permafrost/thermokarst, carbon cycling, and isotopes. In 2010, Dr. Anthony completed her postdoctoral research on carbon and nutrient cycling in northern lakes with particular attention to permafrost dynamics and thermokarst processes in the Arctic as a as a University of Alaska Presidential International Polar Year Postdoctoral Fellow at the University of Alaska Fairbanks. Prior to her postdoctoral fellowship, she worked as a Research Program Manager at the Oil Spill Recovery Intstitute at the Prince WIlliam Sound Science Center in Alaska. Dr. Anthony holds a B.A. in Geology from Mount Holyoke College, a M.S. in Restoration Ecology from the University of California, Davis, and a Ph.D. in Aquatic Biology from the University of Alaska, Fairbanks.

Betsy Baker is Executive Director of the North Pacific Research Board in Anchorage, Alaska, and Distinguished Scholar at Vermont Law School.  Dr. Baker's immersion in Arctic law and policy, and engagement with the Arctic science community flows from her work on law of the sea, international environmental law, and Canadian-U.S. cooperation. She was a science crew member on the U.S. Coast Guard icebreaker Healy for two Arctic extended continental shelf mapping deployments in 2008-2009, a Research Fellow in the Institute of Arctic Studies at Dartmouth College, and an Alexander von Humboldt Chancellor's Fellow in Germany. Her research and policy work includes commissioned papers on international cooperation in science and policy in the Central Arctic Ocean; comparative offshore oil and gas regulation for the Inuit Circumpolar Conference and Inuit Leaders Summit on Resource Development; and proposed Common Precepts for Marine Scientific Research Access to the Arctic Ocean. For the Arctic Council, she co-led the 2013 Arctic Ocean Review, a PAME survey of international agreements relevant to the Arctic Ocean. She is an affiliated professor at the University of Alaska Fairbanks International Arctic Research Center and the University of Washington School of Law.

John Cassano is an Associate Professor in the Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences and a Fellow of the Cooperative Institute for Research in the Environmental Sciences (CIRES) at the University of Colorado, Boulder. His research involves the study of the meteorology and climate of both polar regions using regional climate models and numerical weather prediction models, in-situ and remotely sensed observations, and various data analysis techniques. Dr. Cassano's main areas of active research include regional climate modeling and model development, analysis of coupled climate system components, and numerical weather prediction. He received his B.S. from Montana State University, his M.S. from the University of Wisconsin, and his Ph.D. from the University of Wyoming.

Sara B. Das is an Associate Scientist in the Geology and Geophysics Department at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. Dr. Das received her Ph.D. in Geosciences from Pennsylvania State University in 2003 (a student of Richard Alley). Her research interests are in the reconstruction of paleoclimates from ice-cores; Holocene climate variability; the deglaciation of the West Antarctic and Greenland Ice Sheets; controls on ice sheet surface melting, mass balance and ice dynamics; the role of the Greenland Ice Sheet and West Antarctic Ice Sheet in sea level rise; development of remote sensing and field methods to investigate ice sheet processes and recent change; exploring the interaction between the coupled cryosphere-atmosphere-ocean systems; and investigating biogeochemical processes in polar environments. She served on the committee for the NRC study Future Science Opportunities in Antarctica and the Southern Ocean (2011).

Jennifer A. Francis is a Research Professor at the Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences and the Graduate Program in Atmospheric Sciences at Rutgers University. She studies the Arctic climate system, causes for rapid change, and linkages between the Arctic and the global climate system. Her work is funded primarily by the National Science Foundation. She has served on several national committees in the National Science Foundation, the American Meteorological Society, and the science steering committee for the Study of Arctic Environmental Change (SEARCH). Dr. Francis received her Ph.D. in atmospheric sciences from the University of Washington in 1994.

Eileen E. Hofmann is a Professor of Oceanography in the Center for Coastal Physical Oceanography at Old Dominion University. Dr. Hofmann earned a Ph.D. in Marine Science and Engineering from North Carolina State University. Her research focuses on the analysis and modeling of biological and physical interactions in marine ecosystems and descriptive physical oceanography. She served on the Ocean Studies Board and on numerous NRC committees, including the Committee on Strategic Advice on the U.S. Climate Change Science Program. She is currently the Chair of the Integrating Marine Biogeochemical and Ecosystem Research Project, of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program.

Brendan Kelly is the Executive Director of the Science Steering Committee of the Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH) program. His career in Arctic research and policy includes serving on the faculty and administration of the University of Alaska, as a research scientist with NOAA's National Marine Mammal Laboratory, Deputy Director of Arctic Sciences at the National Science Foundation, Chief Scientist of the Monterey Bay Aquarium, and Assistant Director for Polar Science in the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy. Dr. Kelly has held leadership positions at the University of Alaska campuses, advised Alaska Native organizations on sea otter and harbor seal management, and spoken widely on climate change issues. In Alaska, he worked extensively with indigenous peoples to understand the effects that environmental change is having on their communities. He has been studying marine mammals in the Pacific, Atlantic, Southern, and Arctic oceans for over 36 years and is a charter member of the Society for Marine Mammalogy. He has a M.S. from the University of Alaska Fairbanks and a Ph.D. from Purdue University.

John Kovac is Associate Professor of Astronomy and Physics at Harvard University. His cosmology research focuses on observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) to reveal signatures of the physics that drove the birth of the universe, the creation of its structure, and its present-day expansion. His research over the past two decades has involved the design, deployment, and operation of multiple generations of radio telescopes at the Amundsen-Scott Station at the South Pole. He has authored over 30 refereed publications on his research and has co-organized meetings on astrophysics from Antarctica including NSF workshops, SCAR working groups, and the IAU 2012 special Symposium. He is a 2011 Alfred P. Sloan Research Fellow and a recipient of the NSF Career Award.

Nancy G. Maynard is a Visiting Scientist in the University of Miami's Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, as well as a Scientist Emeritus in the Cryospheric Sciences Branch at NASA GSFC. Her interests are in the use of remote sensing to observe changes (environment, climate, land use/cover) in the Arctic and their impacts on indigenous populations in the region. She is a Lead Author of the IPCC WG2 Report's Polar Regions Chapter and a Convening Lead Author of the US National Climate Assessment Report for the Indigenous Peoples, Lands and Resources chapter. Dr. Maynard developed a NASA pilot project that brought together scientists and indigenous reindeer herders from the US, Russia, and Norway to integrate remote sensing, ground-based, and indigenous data and knowledge in the Eurasian Arctic. She served as the Project Manager for a NASA project to increase the number of American Indian/Alaska Native undergraduates in science-related disciplines. Previously, she led the first NASA Environment and Health Program and other large interdisciplinary science programs at NASA HQ, and managed science policy on environment and climate change at the White House OSTP in two different Administrations. Dr. Maynard received a Ph.D. in Marine Biology from the Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science of the University of Miami in 1974.

George B. Newton is currently an Independent Consultant, formerly a Senior Engineer at QinetiQ North America. He is past chairman of the U.S. Arctic Research Commission and has been actively involved in Arctic matters for more than 30 years. He served as a member of the Commission for more than 14 years and as chairman for 10 years, leading the efforts to advance Arctic research in the United States and internationally. His expertise covers oceanography, its general environment, research and development, policy, logistics, demography and history. He was recently named to the Finance and Management Boards of the Glacier Society. Complementing this knowledge is his nationally recognized understanding of the U.S. military's Arctic requirements, capabilities and operations. He has operated a nuclear submarine under sea ice and commanded a nuclear submarine in special operations during the Cold War. Mr. Newton had a long and distinguished career in the U.S. Navy, where he was awarded the Meritorious Service Medal, the Navy Commendation Medal, and twice the Legion of Merit. In 1990, he was appointed to former Senator Al Gore's Ad Hoc Sea Ice Data Committee. He also served as Director of the Radar Analysis Center at Systems Planning Corporation. Mr. Newton holds a Sc.B degree in Electrical Engineering from Brown University; a degree in Nuclear Engineering from the U.S. Naval Nuclear Power School, and an M.S. degree in Industrial Engineering and Management from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.

Rafe Pomerance is an Independent Consultant. Climate change has been the major focus of his career. Starting in the late 1970's, he partnered with Dr. Gordon MacDonald then a member of the NAS to draw attention to the climate change problem and joined the World Resources Institute in 1985 to continue the outreach effort that involved a wide range of activities with scientists, the media, the Congress and administration officials. In the mid 1980's Pomerance's work at WRI led to Congressional hearings that put the climate issue on the national and international agenda. While at WRI Pomerance was also involved in the science, media, diplomacy and Congressional oversight of the ozone depletion issue. In 1993 Pomerance joined the US State Department as a Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Environment and Development and had responsibility for numerous multilateral issues including climate change and ozone depletion. It was during that period that the Kyoto Protocol was negotiated. In 1999 Pomerance left the State Department to start a new non profit (Climate Policy Center) dedicated to a bipartisan approach to a number of policy issues including cap and trade, advanced R&D (ARPA-E) and the implications of a changing Arctic. While at Clean Air Cool Planet, Pomerance launched an effort to draw attention of coastal communities in US to the risks posed by the increasing loss of Greenland ice. In addition Pomerance and Clean Air Cool Planet partnered with the Clean Air Task Force to propose a 'short lived climate forcers' initiative to the Arctic Council. As a consultant he has recently devoted his work to reframing of the climate issue around local impacts which have become increasingly visible eg sea level rise in Florida; he has also continued his focus on the Arctic most recently helping to organize a workshop at Columbia's Earth Institute, 'White Arctic, Blue Arctic: Exploring the Restoration of Arctic Sea Ice.' He is now involved in a strategic review of U.S. options as the U.S. Chairmanship of the Arctic Council approaches. He has also designed an effort to encourage the U.S. Government to begin a geoengineering research program.

Gaius (Gus) Shaver is a Senior Scientist with expertise in tundra ecosystems at the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Massachussetts. Dr. Shaver's research interests include plant growth and nutrition and the role of plants in ecosystem element cycles; long-term, whole-ecosystem experiments at the Arctic LTER at Toolik Lake, Alaska; and the regulation of terrestrial carbon accumulation and exchanges of carbon with the atmosphere. Dr. Shaver received his Ph.D. in botany from Duke University in 1976.


Larry D. Hinzman (U.S. Delegate to IASC) is the Director of the International Research Center (IARC) at the University of Alaska Fairbanks. He holds a Ph.D. in Soil Physics from the University of Alaska Fairbanks. His professional interests include hydrology, soil science and permafrost. Specifically, Dr. Hinzman has extensive experience in field research and modeling surface and subsurface flow, emphasis upon permafrost hydrology, arctic and subarctic meteorological processes. He possesses proficiency in thermal analysis through numerical and analytical solutions, and is an expert in soil physics and soil chemistry.

Terry Wilson (U.S. Delegate to SCAR) is professor of geological sciences at Ohio State University. With her research group, she investigates the structural architecture of the Earth, how continents rift, and the interaction of the solid Earth and ice sheets in Antarctica, using structural field observations, geophysical data and GPS. Dr. Wilson is the U.S.delegate to SCAR, a Vice President of SCAR, is chair of SCAR's Scientific Research Programme 'SERCE' (Solid Earth Responses and influence on Cryospheric Evolution), and has extensive experience working to create and sustain international programs and collaboration. Dr. Wilson earned her Ph.D. in geology from Columbia University in 1983.

Deneb Karentz (Alternate U.S. Delegate to SCAR) is a professor at the University of San Francisco in the Departments of Biology and Environmental Science. She is a marine biologist with expertise in plankton ecology and ultraviolet (UV) photobiology. Dr. Karentz has been involved in field research in Antarctica since 1986, has been a member of many committees that act in an advisory capacity to the US Antarctic Program, is an instructor for the NSF Antarctic Biology Course (since 1994), spent two years at NSF as the associate program manager for Biology and Medicine in the Office of Polar Programs, and currently serves as a science advisor for the US delegation to the Committee on Environmental Protection/Antarctic Treaty System.