Earth Sciences: Consensus Reports

The division produces 60-70 reports per year. These reports are unique, authoritative expert evaluations. Each report is produced by a committee of experts selected by the Academy to address a particular statement of task and is subject to a rigorous, independent peer review. The experts who volunteer their time participating on study committees are vetted to make sure that the committee has the range of expertise needed to address the task, that they have a balance of perspectives, and to identify and eliminate members with conflicts of interest. All reports undergo a rigorous, independent peer review to assure that the statement of task has been addressed, that conclusions are adequately supported, and that all important issues raised by the reviewers are addressed. Thus, while the reports represent views of the committee, they also are endorsed by the Academy.

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Showing results 1 - 5 of 120

Volcanic Eruptions and Their Repose, Unrest, Precursors, and Timing (2017)

Despite broad understanding of volcanoes, key questions regarding the timing, duration, style, size, and consequences of volcanic eruptions remain unanswered, says a new report by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. To improve eruption forecasting and warnings to save lives, the report identifies three grand challenges for the volcanic science community. More >>

Report in Brief

State of the Art and Practice in the Assessment of Earthquake-Induced Soil Liquefaction and Its Consequences (2016)

Earthquake-induced soil liquefaction is a leading cause of earthquake damage worldwide. Studies often describe liquefaction as the phenomena of seismic generation of excess porewater* pressures, which then soften granular soils. Many regions in the United States have been witness to liquefaction and its consequences, such as the inability of soils to support the foundations of buildings and other infrastructure. Past damage and destructio... More >>

Report in Brief

Fostering Transformative Research in the Geographical Sciences (2015)

Transformative research drives science forward by redefining entire fields of study, forming new research communities, and even launching new industries. Such research brings great rewards, but also carries risks for funding agencies that are challenged to identify, at their earliest stages, those projects that have the potential to yield transformative results. By reviewing how transformative research emerged in the past, the report identifie... More >>

Report in Brief

Characterization, Modeling, Monitoring, and Remediation of Fractured Rock (2015)

Characterizing and modeling fluid flow through fractured rock is vital to limiting the spread of chemical contaminants through rock features; for understanding where reservoirs of petroleum, water, or geothermal resources may form; and for engineering stable and resilient underground infrastructure. Over the past twenty years there have been significant advances in abilities to model and characterize these pathways, but significant challenge... More >>

Advancing Land Change Modeling: Opportunities and Research Requirements (2013)

Urban development, agriculture, and energy production are just a few of the ways that human activities are continually changing and reshaping the Earth’s surface. Land-change models (LCMs) are important tools for understanding and managing present and future landscape conditions, from an individual parcel of land in a city to the vast expanses of forests around the world. A recent explosion in the number and types of land observations, mode... More >>