Committee Membership Information

Study Title:

Assessing Numeric Limits for Living Organisms in Ballast Water

Study Director:


Dr. James T. Carlton - (Chair)
Williams College

JAMES T. CARLTON, Chair, is a professor of Marine Sciences at Williams College. He has directed the Williams-Mystic Program since 1989 and also teaches marine ecology. He holds a B.A. in paleontology from the University of California, Berkeley, a Ph.D. in ecology from the University of California, Davis, and he was a postdoctoral scholar at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. His research is on global marine bioinvasions (their ecosystem impacts, dispersal mechanisms, and management strategies) and on marine extinctions in modern times. He was the first scientist to receive the federal government?s Interagency Recognition Award for his national and international work to reduce the impacts of exotic invasions in the sea. Dr. Carlton has served on two NRC committees including the 1996 Committee on Ships? Ballast Operations, which produced Stemming the Tide: Controlling Introductions of Nonindigenous Species by Ships? Ballast Water, and he was co-chair of the Marine Biodiversity Committee, which produced Understanding Marine Biodiversity: A Research Agenda for the Nation.


Dr. Gregory M. Ruiz - (Vice Chair)
Smithsonian Environmental Research Center

GREGORY M. RUIZ, Vice-Chair, is a marine ecologist and senior scientist at the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center (SERC). He is one of the world?s foremost experts on invasion biology in coastal marine ecosystems. He directs the National Ballast Information Clearinghouse, the principal aims of which are to quantify the amounts and origins of ballast water discharged in U.S. coastal systems and to determine the likelihood of ballast-mediated invasions by exotic species. Dr. Ruiz also studies the biology, ecology, and patterns of transfer mechanisms (vectors) that deliver species beyond their geographic range; the biological and ecological attributes of species in their non-native range; and global patterns of biological invasions and factors that control observed distributions. He has been involved in numerous national and international working groups dealing with nonnative species invasions, including the Scientific and Technical Advisory Committee of the EPA?s Chesapeake Bay Program and the Global Invasive Species Program. Dr. Ruiz received his B.A. in aquatic biology from University of California, Santa Barbara, and his Ph.D. in zoology from the University of California, Berkeley.


Dr. James E. Byers
University of Georgia

JAMES E. BYERS is an associate professor in the Odum School of Ecology at the University of Georgia. He was previously a professor at the University of New Hampshire, and he has been a visiting scholar at the University of Wollongong and the University of Technology Sydney, both in Australia. Dr. Byers studies species interactions in nearshore, estuarine, and marsh environments, focusing on quantitatively measuring the impacts of non-indigenous species on native biota in invaded communities. He has developed quantitative tools to better understand how and when invading species will impact native systems and to help predict outcomes of future invasions. He has recently begun working on the spread of invasions in advective environments. He received his B.S. in zoology from Duke University and his Ph.D. in ecology from the University of California, Santa Barbara.


Dr. Fred C. Dobbs
Old Dominion University

FRED C. DOBBS is a professor and the Graduate Program Director in the Department of Ocean, Earth and Atmospheric Sciences at Old Dominion University. He received his A.B. in biology from Franklin and Marshall College, his M.S. in zoology from University of Connecticut, and his Ph.D. in oceanography from Florida State University. Subsequently, he held institutional post-doctoral positions at State University of New York at Stony Brook and the University of Hawaii. His current research addresses several areas in aquatic microbial ecology. In the context of ballast water quality standards, he is known for his interests in the abundance, population dynamics, and survival of microorganisms, including potentially pathogenic ones, in ballast tanks. In addition, he has considered the fate of microorganisms discharged into harbor waters and their potential for subsequent growth and establishment. Dr. Dobbs was a ?charter member? and continues to serve on the EPA/ Environmental Technology Verification Ballast Water Technology Panel that considers design and testing of shore-based ballast-water treatment systems. He also sits on the Advisory Panel of the Marine Invasive Species Program, California State Lands Commission, and is an Advisory Board Member of the Maritime Environmental Resource Center, University of Maryland.


Dr. Brian Leung
McGill University

BRIAN LEUNG is an assistant professor in the Biology Department at the McGill School of the Environment. The broad underlying theme of his research is the application of ecology to important environmental issues, merging mathematical, computational, and statistical modeling techniques with empirical information. He is currently focusing on invasive species, forecasting when and where biological invasions will occur, what effect they will have, and determining what should be done about them. He uses tools such as bioeconomics, computational biology, and risk assessment as vehicles for decision-making. His research interests also include infectious diseases. From 2001-2002, he was the coordinator of the NSF Biocomplexity Interdisciplinary Project, which evaluated biological and economic risks posed to Great Lakes ecosystems by invading species. He received his B.Sc. in biology from the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, and his Ph.D. in biology from Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario.


Ms. Allegra Cangelosi
Northeast-Midwet Institute

ALLEGRA CANGELOSI is the director of Environmental Projects for the Northeast-Midwest Institute. She has been engaged in policy, technological, and scientific aspects of ship-mediated invasive species introductions for two decades, including activities at the state, regional, federal, and international levels. In the 1990s, she directly assisted in fashioning and gaining enactment of the Nonindigenous Aquatic Nuisance Prevention and Control Act and its amendments. From 1996 to 2002, Ms. Cangelosi participated in the U.S. delegation to the International Maritime Organization (IMO) as a technical advisor for the Ballast Water Working Group. During the same period, she led a multidisciplinary team in undertaking ballast treatment performance assessments in operating ship and shore-based contexts, including performance evaluations with respect to zooplankton, phytoplankton, and microbial organisms. Most recently she has developed harbor and ship discharge monitoring methods for detecting species risks, as well as ballast treatment verification in fresh water environments, both via the Great Ships Initiative. She received her B.A. in biology from Kalamazoo College and her M.S. in resource economics from Michigan State University.


Dr. Hugh J. MacIsaac
University of Windsor

HUGH J. MACISAAC is a professor and the Invasive Species Research Chair in the Department of Fisheries and Oceans at the Great Lakes Institute for Environmental Research, University of Windsor. He is also the director of the Canadian Aquatic Invasive Species Network, a consortium of 34 professors from across Canada who study aquatic invasive species in a systematic manner. Dr. MacIsaac received his M.Sc. from the University of Toronto and his Ph.D. from Dartmouth College. His research has focused on vectors of invasion in freshwater systems, most notably shipping. He is interested in hull fouling as a mechanism of non-native species introduction, ballast water treatment, invasion theory, and the genetic structure of invading species. He has conducted ballast water and hull fouling studies on the Great Lakes, in Halifax, and in Vancouver, and is presently initiating similar work in the Arctic. Dr. MacIsaac was a member of both NRC committees on the St. Lawrence Seaway: Options to Eliminate Introduction of Nonindigenous Species into the Great Lakes.


Dr. Edwin D. Grosholz
University of California, Davis

EDWIN D. GROSHOLZ is a professor and the Alexander and Elizabeth Swantz Specialist in Cooperative Extension at the University of California, Davis. His work focuses on understanding the impacts of introduced species in coastal ecosystems and the relative importance of vectors such as ballast water in their establishment. He also studies the consequences of introduced parasites and diseases in marine and estuarine systems. His involvement with invasive species and ballast water management includes being co-chair of the Coastal Committee for the Western Regional Panel of the Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force, a member of the Southern California Caulerpa Action Team, co-author of the federal management plan for the European Green Crab, and co-author of the California Aquatic Invasive Species Management Plan. He co-authored the Pacific State Marine Fisheries Commission workshop proceedings on Alternate Ballast Water Exchange Areas and developed a comprehensive invasive species database for the San Francisco Bay-Delta Region that focuses on the origin and likelihood ballast water transport. In addition to teaching marine conservation biology and field ecological methods, Dr. Grosholz manages an active outreach and education program focused on preventing invasions of aquatic ecosystems. He received his B.A. in biology from Brown University and his Ph.D. in zoology from the University of California at Berkeley.


Dr. Majorie J. Wonham
Quest University

MARJORIE J. WONHAM is a professor at Quest University. She has been a visiting instructor at the Bamfield Marine Sciences Centre, at Friday Harbor Laboratories, and at Northeastern University. She was also a research associate at both the Centre for Mathematical Biology and the Centre for Research in Youth, Science, Teaching and Learning at the University of Alberta. Her relevant background is in the empirical study of ballast water assemblages, field studies of individual invasions, and the analysis of invasion patterns. She has conducted modeling of ballast and invasion dynamics and of the dynamics of introduced disease, with a focus on invasive species on the Pacific coast of North America such as the mitten crab and the varnish clam. She recently joined the faculty at Quest University Canada, where her major focus will be the pedagogical development of field-based courses in ecology. She received her B.A. in natural sciences from Cambridge University and her Ph.D. in zoology from the University of Washington.